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# Top-level commands.

In what follows curly braces denote an optional argument. You should note type them.

## Control commands.

goal formula.

Start a proof of the given formula. See the next section about proof commands.

>phox> def fermat =
/\x,y,z,n:N ((x^n + y^n = z^n) -> n <= S S O).
/\ x,y,z,n : N (x ^ n + y ^ n = z ^ n -> n <= S S O) : Form
>phox> goal fermat.
.....

.....
>phox> proved


prove_claim name
:

Start the proof of an axiom previously introduced by then claim command. It is very useful with the module system to prove claims introduced by a module.

quit.
:

Exit the program.

>phox> quit.
Bye
%


restart.
:

Restart the program, does not stop it, process is stil the same.

{Local} theorem name {"tex_name"} expression

Identical to goal except you give the name of the theorem and optionally its TeX syntax (this TeX Syntax is used as in tex_syntax name "tex_name"). Therefore, you do not have to give a name when you use the save command.

Instead of theorem, you can use the following names: prop | proposition | lem | lemma| fact | cor | corollary | theo.

You can give the instruction Local to indicate that this theorem should not be exported. This means that if you use the Import or Use command, only the exported theorem will be added.

## Commands modifying the theory.

claim name {"tex_name"} formula.

Add the formula to the data-base as a theorem (claim) under the given name.

You can give an optional TeX syntax (this TeX Syntax is used as in tex_syntax name "tex_name").

Cst syntax : sort.

Defines a constant of any sort.

>phox> Cst map : (nat -> nat) -> nat -> nat.


Default syntax is prefix. You can give a prefix, postfix or infix syntax for instance the following declarations allow the usual syntaxes for order and factorial :

Cst Infix x "<" y : nat -> nat -> prop.
$< : d -> d -> prop Cst Postfix[1.5] x "!" : nat -> nat.$! : d -> d


To avoid too many parenthesis, you can also give a priority (a floating number) and, in case of infix notation, you can precise if the symbol associates to the right (rInfix) or to the left (lInfix).

For instance the following declarationsA.1

Cst Prefix[2] "S" x : nat -> nat.
Cst rInfix[3.5] x "+" y : nat -> nat -> nat.
Cst lInfix[3.5] x "-" y : nat -> nat -> nat.
Cst Infix[5] x "<" y : nat -> nat -> prop.

gives the following :
• S x + y means (S x) + y (parenthesis around the expression with principal symbol of smaller weight) ;
• x - y < x + y means (x - y) < (x + y) (same reason) ;
• x + y + z means x + (y + z) (right symbol first) ;
• x - y - z means (x - y) - z (left symbol first).
More : the two symbols have the same priority and then x - y + z is not a valid expression.

Arbitrary priorities are possible but can give a mess. You have ad least to follows these conventions (used in the libraries) :

• connectives : priority ;
• predicates : priority ;
• functions : priority .

You can even define more complex syntaxes, for instance :

Cst Infix[4.5]  x  "==" y "mod" p : nat -> nat -> nat-> nat.
(* $== : nat -> nat -> nat -> nat *) print \a,b(a + b == a mod b). (* \a,b (a + b == a mod b) : nat -> nat -> nat *)  you can define syntax for binders : Cst Prefix[4.9] "{" \P\ "in" a "/" P "}" : 'a -> ('a -> prop) -> prop. (*${ : 'a -> ('a -> prop) -> prop *)
print \a \P{ x in a / P}.
(* \a,P {x in a / P } : ?a -> prop -> prop *)


{Local} def syntax = expression.

Defines an abbreviation using a given syntax for an expression.

The prefix Local tells that this definition should not be exported. This means that if you use the Import or Use command, only the exported definitions will be added.

Here are some examples :

>phox> def rInfix[7]  X "&" Y = /\K ((X -> Y -> K) -> K).
(\X (\Y /\ K ((X -> Y -> K) -> K))) : Form -> Form -> Form
>phox> def rInfix[8]  X "or" Y =
/\K ((X -> K) -> (Y -> K) -> K).
(\X (\Y /\ K ((X -> K) -> (Y -> K) -> K))) :
Form -> Form -> Form
>phox> def Infix [8.5]  X "<->" Y = (X -> Y) & (Y -> X).
(\X (\Y (X -> Y) & (Y -> X))) : Form -> Form -> Form
>phox> def Prefix[5] "mu" \A\ \A\ A "<" t ">" =
/\X (/\x (A X x -> X x) -> X t).
(\A (\t /\ X (/\ x (A X x -> X x) -> X t))) :
((Term -> Form) -> Term -> Form) -> Term -> Form


Defintion of the syntax follows the same rules and conventions as for the command Cst above.

{Local} def_thlist name = th1 ...thn.

Defines name to be the list of theorems th1 ...thn. For the moment list of theorems are useful only with commands rewrite and rewrite_hyp.

>phox> def_thlist demorgan =
negation.demorgan  disjunction.demorgan
forall.demorgan    arrow.demorgan
exists.demorgan    conjunction.demorgan.


del symbol.

Delete the given symbol from the data-base. All definitions, theorems and rules using this symbol are deleted too.

>phox> del lesseq1.
delete lesseq_refl
delete inf_total from ##totality_axioms
delete inf_total
delete sup_total from ##totality_axioms
delete sup_total
delete less_total from ##totality_axioms
delete less_total
delete lesseq_total from ##totality_axioms
delete lesseq_total
delete lesseq1 from ##rewrite_rules
delete lesseq1


del_proof name.
Delete the proof of the given theorem (the theorem becomes a claim). Useful mainly to undo the prove_claim command.

Sort {['a,'b, ...]} {= sort}.

Adds a new sort. The sort may have parameters or may be defined from another sort.

>phox> Sort real.
Sort real defined
>phox> Sort tree['a].
Sort tree defined
>phox> Sort bool = prop.
Sort bool defined


## Commands modifying proof commands.

These commands modify behaviour of the proof commands described in appendix A.2. For instance the commands new_intro, new_elim and new_equation by adding new rules, modify behaviour of the corresponding proof commands intro, elim, rewrite and commands that derive from its.

In particular they can also modify the behaviour of automatic commands like trivial and auto. They are useful to make proofs of further theorems easier (but can also make them harder if not well used). You can find examples in libraries, where they are systematically used.

For good understanding recall that the underlying proof system is basically natural deduction, even if it is possible to add rules like lefts rules of sequent calculus, see below.

{Local} close_def symbol.

When symbol is defined, this closes'' the definition. This means that the definition can no more be open by usual proof commands unless you explicitly ask it by using for instance proof commands unfold or unfold_hyp. In particular unification does not use the definition anymore. This can in some case increase the efficiency of the unification algorithm and the automatic tactic (or decrease if not well used). When you have add enough properties and rules about a given symbol with new_...commands, it can be a good thing to close'' it. Note that the first new_elim command closes the definition for elimination rules, the first new_intro command closes the definition for introduction rules. In case these two commands are used, close_def ends it by closing the definition for unification.

For (bad) implementation reasons the prefix Local is necessary in case it is used for the definition of the symbol (see def command). If not the definition will not be really local.

edel extension-list item.

Deletes the given item from the extension-list.

Possible extension lists are: rewrite (the list of rewriting rules introduced by the new_equation command), elim, intro, (the introduction and elimination rules introduced by the new_elim and new_intro {-t} commands), closed (closed definitions introduced by the close_def command) and tex (introduced by the tex_syntax command). The items can be names of theorems (new_...), or symbols ( close_def and tex_syntax). Use the eshow command for listing extension lists.

>phox> edel elim All_rec.
delete All_rec from ##elim_ext


elim_after_intro symbol.

Warning: this command will disappear soon.

Tells the trivial tactic to try an elimination using an hypothesis starting with the symbol constructor only if no introduction rule can be applied on the current goal. (This seems to be useful only for the negation).

>phox> def Prefix[6.3] "~" X = X -> False.
\X (X -> False) : Form -> Form
>phox> elim_after_intro $~. Symbol added to "elim_after_intro" list.  {Local} new_elim {-i} {-n} {-t} symbol name { num} theorem. If the theorem has the following shape: where symbol is the head of (the quantifier can be of any order and intermixed with the implications if you wish). Then this theorem can be added as an elimination rule for this symbol. is the main premise, are the other premises and is the conclusion of the rule. The name is used as an abbreviation when you want to precise which rule to apply when using the elim command. The optional num tells that the principal premise is the numth premise whose head is symbol. The default is to take the first so this is useful only when the first premise whose head is symbol is not the principal one. >phox> goal /\X /\Y (X & Y -> X). |- /\ X,Y (X & Y -> X) >phox> trivial. proved >phox> save and_elim_l. Building proof .... Done. Typing proof .... Done. Verifying proof .... Done. >phox> goal /\X /\Y (X & Y -> Y). |- /\ X,Y (X & Y -> Y) >>phox> trivial. proved >phox> save and_elim_r. Building proof .... Done. Typing proof .... Done. Verifying proof .... Done. >phox> new_elim$& l and_elim_l.
>phox> new_elim $& r and_elim_r.  If the leftmost proposition of the theorem is a propositional variable (and then positively universally quantified), the rule defined by new_elim is called a left rule, that is like left rules of sequent calculus. The option [-i] tells the tactic trivial not to backtrack on such a left rule. This option will be refused by the system if the theorem donnot define a left rule. The option should be used for an invertible left rule, that is a rule that can commute with other rules. A non sufficient condition is that premises of the rule are equivalent to the conclusion. A somewhat degenerate (there is no premises) case is : >phox> proposition false.elim /\X (False -> X). trivial. save. %phox% 0 goal created. proved %phox% Building proof ....Done Typing proof ....Done Verifying proof ....Done Saving proof ....Done >phox> new_elim -i False n false.elim. Theorem added to elimination rules.  The option [-n] tells the trivial tactic not to try to use this rule, except if [-i] is also used. In this last case the two options [-i -n] tell the tactic trivial to apply this rule first, and use it as the left proof command, that is only once. Recall that in this case the left rule should be invertible. For instance : >phox> proposition conjunction.left /\X,Y,Z ((Y -> Z -> X) -> Y & Z -> X). trivial. save. >phox> |- /\X,Y,Z ((Y -> Z -> X) -> Y & Z -> X) %phox% 0 goal created. proved %phox% Building proof ....Done Typing proof ....Done Verifying proof ....Done Saving proof ....Done >phox> new_elim -n -i$& s conjunction.left.


The option [-t] should be used for transitivity theorems. It gives some optimisations for automatic tactics (subject to changes).

The prefix Local tells that this rule should not be exported. This means that if you use the Import or Use command, only the exported rules will be added.

You should also note that once one elimination rule has been introduced, the symbol definition is no more expanded by the elim tactic. The elim tactic only tries to apply each elimination rule. Thus if a connective needs more that one elimination rules, you should prove all the corresponding theorems and then use the new_elim command.

new_equation {-l|-r|-b} name ....

Add the given equations or conditional equations to the equational reasoning used in conjunction with the high order unification algorithm. name must be a claim or a theorem with at least one equality as an atomic formula which is reachable from the top of the formula by going under a universal quantifier or a conjunction or to the right of an implication. This means that a theorem like can be added as a conditional equation. Moreover equations of the form where and are variables are not allowed.

the option -l'' (the default) tells to use the equation from left to right. The option -r'' tells to use the equation from right to left. The option -b'' tells to use the equation in both direction.

>phox> claim add_O /\y:N (O + y = y).
>phox> claim add_S /\x,y:N (S x + y = S (x + y)).
>phox> goal /\x:N (x = O + x).
trivial.
>phox> proved


{Local} new_intro {-n} {-i} {-t} {-c} name theorem.

If the theorem has the following shape: (the quantifier can be of any order and intermixed with the implications if you wish), then this theorem can be added as an introduction rule for symbol, where symbol is the head of . The formulae are the premises and is the conclusion of the rule.

The name is used as an abbreviation when you want to precise which rule to apply when using the intro command.

The option [-n] tells the trivial tactic not to try to use this rule. The option [-i] tells the trivial tactic this rule is invertible. This implies that the trivial tactic will not try other introduction rules if an invertible one match the current goal, and will not backtrack on these rules.

The option [-t] should be used when this rule is a totality theorem for a function (like ), the option [-c] for a totality theorem for a constructor'' like or successor on natural numbers. It can give some optimisations on automatic tactics (subject to changes). For the flag auto_type to work properly we recommend to use the option [-i] together with these two options (totality theorems are in general invertible).

The prefix Local tells that this rule should not be exported. This means that if you use the Import or Use command, only the exported rules will be added.

You should also note that once one introduction rule has been introduced, the symbol (head of ) definition is no more expanded by the intro tactic. The intro tactic only tries to apply each introduction rule. Thus if a connective has more that one introduction rules, you should prove all the corresponding theorems and then use the new_intro command.

>phox> goal /\X /\Y (X -> X or Y).

|- /\ X /\ Y (X -> X or Y)
>phox> trivial.
proved
>phox> save or_intro_l.
Building proof .... Done.
Typing proof .... Done.
Verifying proof .... Done.
>phox> goal /\X /\Y (Y -> X or Y).

|- /\ X /\ Y (Y -> X or Y)
>phox> trivial.
proved
>phox> save or_intro_r.
Building proof .... Done.
Typing proof .... Done.
Verifying proof .... Done.
>phox> new_intro l or_intro_l.
>phox> new_intro r or_intro_r.


## Inductive definitions.

These macro-commands defines new theories with new rules.

{Local} Data ....

Defines an inductive data type. See the dedicated chapter.

Data Nat n =
N0  : Nat N0
| S n : Nat n -> Nat (S n)
.

Data List A l =
nil : List A nil
| [cons] rInfix[3.0] x "::" l :
A x -> List A l -> List A (x::l)
.

Data Listn A n l =
nil : Listn A N0 nil
| [cons] rInfix[3.0] x "::" l :
/\n (A x -> Listn A n l -> Listn A (S n) (x::l))
.

Data Tree A B t =
leaf a   : A a -> Tree A B (leaf a)
| node b l :
B b -> List (Tree A B) l -> Tree A B (node b l)
.


{Local} Inductive ....

Defines an inductive predicate. See the dedicated chapter.

Inductive And A B =
left  : A -> And A B
| right : B -> And A B
.

Use nat.

Inductive Less x y =
zero : /\x Less N0 x
| succ : /\x,y (Less x y -> Less (S x) (S y))
.

Inductive Less2 x y =
zero : Less2 x x
| succ : /\y (Less2 x y -> Less2 x (S y))
.

Inductive Add x y z =
zero : Add N0 y y
| succ : /\x,z (Add x y z -> Add (S x) y (S z))
.

Inductive [Eq] Infix[5] x "==" y =
zero : N0 == N0
| succ : /\x,y (x == y -> S x == S y)
.


## Managing files and modules.

Add string to the list of all path. This path list is used to find files when using the Import, Use and include commands. You can set the environment variable to set your own path (separating each directory with a column).

>phox> add_path "/users/raffalli/phox/examples".
/users/raffalli/phox/examples/

/users/raffalli/phox/work/
/users/raffalli/phox/examples/


Import module_name.

Loads the interface file module_name.afi'' (This file is produced by compiling an file). Everything in this file is directly loaded, no renaming applies and objects of the same name will be merged if this is possible otherwise the command will fail.

A renaming applied to a module will not rename symbols added to the module by the Import command (unless the renaming explicitly forces it).

Beware, if Import command fails when using interactively, the file can be partially loaded which can be quite confusing !

include "filename".

Load an ASCII file as if all the characters in the file were typed at the top-level.

Use {-n} module_name {renaming}.

Loads the interface file module_name.afi'' (This file is produced by compiling a file). If given, the renaming is applied. Objects of the same name (after renaming) will be merged if this is possible otherwise the command will fail.

The option -n tells Use to check that the theory is not extended. That is no new constant or axiom are added and no constant are instantiated by a definition.

The syntax of renaming is the following:

renaming := renaming_sentence { | renaming }
A renaming_sentence is one of the following (the rule matching explicitly the longest part of the original name applies):
• name1 -> name2 : the symbol name1 is renamed to named2.
• _.suffix1 -> _.suffix2 : any symbol of the form xxx.suffix1 is renamed to xxx.suffix2 (a suffix can contain some dots).
• _.suffix1 -> _ : any symbol of the form xxx.suffix1 is renamed to xxx.
• _ -> _.suffix2 : any symbol of the form xxx is renamed to xxx.suffix2.
• from module_name with renaming. : symbols created using the command Import module_name will be renamed using the given renaming (By default they would not have been renamed).

A renaming applied to a module will rename symbols added to the module by the Use command.

Beware, if Use command fails when using interactively, the file can be partially imported which can be quite confusing !

## TeX.

{Local} tex_syntax symbol syntax.

Tells to use the given syntax for this symbol when producing TeX formulas.

The prefix Local tells that this definition should not be exported. This means that if you use the Import or Use command, only the exported definitions will be added.

## Obtaining some informations on the system.

depend theorem.
Gives the list of all axioms which have been used to prove the theorem.

>phox> depend add_total.


eshow extension-list.

Shows the given extension-list. Possible extension lists are (See edel): equation (the list of equations introduced by the new_equation command), elim, intro, (the introduction and elimination rules introduced by the new_elim and new_intro {-t} commands), closed (closed definitions introduced by the close_def command) and tex (introduced by the tex_syntax command).

>phox> eshow elim.
All_rec
and_elim_l
and_elim_r
list_rec
nat_rec


flag name. or flag name value.

Prints the value (in the first form) or modify an internal flags of the system. The different flags are listed in the index B.

>phox> flag axiom_does_matching.
axiom_does_matching = true
>phox> flag axiom_does_matching false.
axiom_does_matching = false


path.

Prints the list of all paths. This path list is used to find files when using the include command.

>phox> path.
/users/raffalli/phox/work/
/users/raffalli/phox/examples/


print expression.
In case expression is a closed expression of the language in use, prints it and gives its sort, gives an (occasionally) informative error message otherwise. In case expression is a defined expression (constant, theorem ...) gives the definition.

>PhoX> print \x,y (y+x).
\x,y (y + x) : nat -> nat -> nat
>PhoX> print \x (N x).
N : nat -> prop
>PhoX> print N.
N = \x /\X (X N0 -> /\y:X  X (S y) -> X x) : nat -> prop
>PhoX> print equal.extensional.
equal.extensional = /\X,Y (/\x X x = Y x -> X = Y) : theorem


print_sort expression.
Similar to print, but gives more information on sorts of bounded variable in expressions.
>PhoX> print_sort \x,y:<nat (y+x).
\x:<nat,y:<nat (y + x) : nat -> nat -> nat
>PhoX> print_sort N.
N = \x:<nat /\X:<nat -> prop (X N0 -> /\y:<nat X (S y) -> X x)
: nat -> prop


priority list of symbols.
Print the priority of the given symbols. If no symbol are given, print the priority of all infix and prefix symbols.

>PhoX> priority N0 $S$+ \$*.
S                   Prefix[2]           nat -> nat
*                   rInfix[3]           nat -> nat -> nat
+                   rInfix[3.5]         nat -> nat -> nat
N0                                      nat


search string type.

Prints the list of all symbols which have the type and whose name contains the string. If no type is given, it prints all symbols whose name contains the string. If the empty string is given, it prints all symbols which have the type.

>PhoX> Import nat.
...
>PhoX> search "trans"
>PhoX> .
equal.transitive                        theorem
equivalence.transitive                      theorem
lesseq.ltrans.N                         theorem
lesseq.rtrans.N                         theorem
>PhoX> search "" nat -> nat -> prop.
!=                  Infix[5]            'a -> 'a -> prop
<                   Infix[5]            nat -> nat -> prop
<=                  Infix[5]            nat -> nat -> prop
<>                  Infix[5]            nat -> nat -> prop
=                   Infix[5]            'a -> 'a -> prop
>                   Infix[5]            nat -> nat -> prop
>=                  Infix[5]            nat -> nat -> prop
predP                                   nat -> nat -> prop


## Term-extraction.

Term-extraction is experimental. You need to launch phox with option -f to use it. At this moment (2001/02) there is a bug that prevents to use correctly command Import with option
-f.

A -term is extracted from in proof in a way similar to the one explained in Krivine's book of lambda-calcul for system Af2. To summarise rules on universal quantifier and equational reasoning are forgotten by extraction.

compile theorem_name.
This command extracts a term from the current proof of the theorem theorem_name. The extracted term has then the same name as the theorem.

tdef term_name= term.
This commands defines term_name as term.

eval term.
This command normalises the term in -calcul.

output {term_name}.
This command prints the given argument term_name, prints all defined terms (by compile or tdef) if no argument is given.

Next: Proof commands. Up: Commands. Previous: Commands.   Contents
Christophe Raffalli 2005-03-02